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Book Chapter

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Animal experiments are commonly conducted to understand human diseases and responses to treatment. As decades of research indicate, the use of nonhuman animals (hereinafter referred to as animals) to translate the side effects, benefits, and impact of medications and treatments on the human body has been demonstrated to be ineffective; while billions of animals and humans have suffered (Shanks, Greek and Greek, 2009). Due to misleading safety and efficacy data from animal experiments, humans are often prescribed medications that may not be as effective or as safe as the patient, or even physician, may have been led to believe (Akhtar, 2015).


open access book chapter