Download Full Text (13.4 MB)

Download Table of Contents (115 KB)

Download Wildlife: A New Perspective (63 KB)

Download Animal Welfare & Captive Wildlife/The 1960's (333 KB)

Download The Federal Regulation of Zoos (192 KB)

Download Mounting Criticism of Zoos (162 KB)

Download The HSUS Zoo Reform Program (184 KB)

Download The HSUS System for Rating Zoos (193 KB)

Download The HSUS Makes its Findings Public (254 KB)

Download Typical Aspects of The Zoo Program (247 KB)

Download The Effects of Municipal Interference (249 KB)

Download Animal Welfare, Zoos and Legislation in the mid-1970s (167 KB)

Download The HSUS, USDA & The AWA-1970 (488 KB)

Download Criticisms and Praise of The HSUS Zoo Program (646 KB)

Download Zoos and Other National Animal Welfare Organizations (850 KB)

Download Zoos Respond to Their Critics (188 KB)

Download The Evolution of the AAZPA (346 KB)

Download Zoos: Pro and Con (2.4 MB)

Download Conclusions and Recommendations (286 KB)

Download Appendix A: Zoos Inspected by The HSUS & Their Ratings (916 KB)

Download Appendix B: The HSUS Ratings of AAZPA Accredited Zoos (62 KB)

Download Appendix C: Individuals Interviewed (65 KB)

Download Appendix D: Sample Letter Sent to National Welfare Organizations (48 KB)

Download Selected References (542 KB)


A report prepared for the Humane Society of the United States

Publication Date



The Humane Society of the United States


Washington, DC


Animal Studies | Other Anthropology | Politics and Social Change | Social Welfare

The Role of the HSUS in Zoo Reform