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The intent of US federal laws mandating IACUC review of animal-related activities was to satisfy contemporary socioethical concerns by introducing deliberations about ethics and animal welfare into the research process when animals are used. These laws and the system they chartered have worked well for the most part in providing opportunities for consideration of animal welfare as a vital part of animal research. As a result, investigators today are far less naïve about the ethical issues raised by research on animals and typically more sympathetic about the need for such consideration. As evidence of this growing awareness, the literature on and use of analgesia and other modalities for controlling pain (and, more recently, distress) in research protocols have grown exponentially, and the issue of environmental enrichment for animals used in research continues to challenge the research community to consider animal husbandry beyond uniformity in animal care and the provision of a clean cage with food and water.