This chapter reviews the global trend towards a modernization of biomedical education in favor of simulation-based training methods, which studies confirm improve student learning and transference of applied skills to clinical practice, reduce laboratory costs, and spare animals from harmful procedures.
Pawlowski, J., Feinstein, D., Crandall, M. L., & Gala, S. (2019). Modernizing biomedical training: replacing live animal laboratories with human simulation. In Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change (pp. 549-566). Brill.