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Pain and distress caused by specific research models and techniques raise serious concerns for those in the animal welfare community as well as in the scientific community. Yet good estimates of how much animal pain and/or animal distress is caused by particular techniques or methods are not yet available. The HSUS has compiled a preliminary list of research models and techniques that cause pain and distress. Analyses by the USDA and HSUS indicate that the majority of the animals reported in Column E are used in various testing procedures, with vaccine testing prominent among them. More data are needed to discriminate amongst research models and specific techniques in terms of the pain and distress they typically induce. Pain and distress may be specific to a particular research model, species, or gender and may affect the extent of suffering caused in that particular animal model. Such information is critical to informed decision-making by researchers, IACUCs, and others.