Irina Mikhalevich and Russell Powell, Minds without spines: Evolutionarily inclusive animal ethics


Invertebrates are far more numerous than vertebrates. Most of them are essential to the survival of humanity. Their physiology, behavior, know-how, and cognitive abilities are often as complex as those of vertebrates. Invertebrates should be considered and studied as are vertebrates, i.e., ethically, and cautiously.

Author Biography

Marie-Claire Cammaerts studies ant behavior, cognition, and the development of their abilities, such as numerosity, and as biological models for examining the effects of products (e.g., drugs) used by humans. Website