Irina Mikhalevich and Russell Powell, Minds without spines: Evolutionarily inclusive animal ethics


Speciesism should play no role in determining welfare outcomes. Cognition may vary within species as well as between species, but broad classifications such as invertebrates are functionally meaningless in this context. Cognition should relate to welfare only to the extent that it relates to the capacity to suffer or to experience pleasure.

Author Biography

Jennifer Vonk, Professor of Psychology, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, has published over 100 articles, chapters and books in the area of animal and human cognition and development. Website