Irina Mikhalevich and Russell Powell, Minds without spines: Evolutionarily inclusive animal ethics


In certain situations, insects appear to lack a response to noxious stimuli that would cause pain in humans. For example, from the fact that male mantids continue to mate while being eaten by their partner it does not follow that insects do not feel pain; it could be the result of modulation of nociceptive inputs or behavioural outputs. When we try to infer the underlying mental state of an insect from its behaviour, it is important to consider the behavioural effects of the associated physiological and neurobiological mechanisms.

Author Biography

Matilda Gibbons is a PhD candidate at Queen Mary University of London, examining the neurobiology and behavioural responses of bees to determine whether invertebrates have pain experiences. Website

Sajedeh Sarlak is a PhD candidate in Entomology at the University of Tehran, Plant Protection Department, researching the responses of social bees to noxious stimuli and stress. Website