Marino, Lori (2020) Sentience in all organisms with centralized nervous systems. Animal Sentience 29(19)
Irina Mikhalevich and Russell Powell, Minds without spines: Evolutionarily inclusive animal ethics
Mikhalevich & Powell (2020) argue for considering the welfare of invertebrates, especially insects, by asking whether invertebrates have the cognitive and neural characteristics necessary for sentience. This approach assumes that human neural and cognitive complexity is the basis of sentience. But insight might also be gained by turning this approach on its head and examining the notion that sentience may be a fundamental biological property, appearing very early in the evolution of life in all organisms with centralized nervous systems.