Zentall, Thomas R. (2020) Cognition, movement and morality. Animal Sentience 29(11)
Irina Mikhalevich and Russell Powell, Minds without spines: Evolutionarily inclusive animal ethics
Each of the criteria for determining which should be given moral standing has its shortcomings. The criterion of cognitive is especially weak. That research on comparative cognition may default to the simplest account is not grounds for abandoning this scientific practice. Instead, we should dissociate scientific evidence of cognitive ability from moral obligation. In addition to the criteria suggested by Mikhalevich & Powell for including species in welfare protections, I would suggest a very old one — the ability to physically move.