Adrian Treves, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, and William S. Lynn, Just preservation


We are grateful to all the commentators who engaged with our target article. Some commentators have offered important insights into our proposed design and methods for legally intervening on behalf of futurity. Others have focused on theoretical considerations central to our proposal for multispecies justice and trusteeship. All have inspired modifications and further elaboration of our initial proposal. In this Response, we engage with the commentaries, integrating their suggestions, striving for convergence and complementarity, but also discussing points of divergence with our proposed framework where necessary. There is substantial overlap in the points of view of the three co-authors, but there are also differences. Section 1 is more reflective of the views of AT and Section 2 is more reflective of the views of FJS-A and WL.

Author Biography

Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila’s research is on the integration and application of environmental and animal ethics to coexistence with wildlife and the evaluation of the effectiveness of policies and interventions to prevent conflicts with large carnivores. His main objective is to embed in the conservation and wildlife fields the much-needed acknowledgement of moral standing for individual non-human animals. Website

Adrian Treves, Professor of Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin–Madison and founder of the Carnivore Coexistence Lab, is an independent researcher and advocate for future generations, for science, and for the sovereign authority of the public. His research is on ecology, law, and human dimensions of ecosystems in which crop and livestock ownership overlaps with the habitat of large carnivores from coyotes up to grizzly bears. Website

William S. Lynn is research scientist in the George Perkins Marsh Institute at Clark University, and Political Animals editor for the journal Society & Animals. His work is on the ethics and politics of sustainability with an emphasis on animals and alternative paradigms of conservation (e.g., compassionate conservation rewilding, and social nature). Website