Lori Marino and Debra Merskin, Intelligence, complexity, and individuality in sheep


Our Response is centered on five major themes: (1) our presentation of human mythologies about sheep; (2) the relevance of cognitive complexity (“intelligence”) as a dimension underlying the way people perceive and treat sheep; (3) whether our review is too anthropocentric or anthropomorphic; (4) animal welfare versus animal rights (abolitionism); and (5) whether knowledge and education are enough to change human attitudes and behavior.

Author Biography

Lori Marino, neuroscientist, President, Whale Sanctuary Project, and Executive Director, Kimmela Center for Animal Advocacy, has written over 130 publications on dolphin and whale brain evolution and anatomy; intelligence and self-awareness; and the effects of captivity on social mammals, including cetaceans, elephants and primates. Website

Debra Merskin, Professor of media studies, School of Journalism and Communication, University of Oregon, focuses on how the media and popular press represent animals, resulting in species stereotypes, and how these affect the lived experiences of real animals. Website