Lori Marino and Debra Merskin, Intelligence, complexity, and individuality in sheep


Marino & Merskin (2019) express hope that providing people with positive information about the abilities of sheep (factual appeals) will improve perceptions of them and thus improve their welfare. However, these factual appeals can, and do, fail to change perceptions of animals. This commentary considers why and when factual appeals fail, and with whom they may be effective.

Author Biography

Sarah Gradidge, doctoral candidate in Psychology at ARU, Cambridge, and editor of Psychobabble, studies speciesism, its causes and interventions. Website

Magdalena Zawisza, Reader at ARU, Cambridge, does research on social, gender and consumer psychology. Website