Lori Marino and Debra Merskin, Intelligence, complexity, and individuality in sheep


Marino & Merskin present evidence on key aspects of cognition, such as theory of mind, learning, emotional valence, and sociality, to make a convincing argument that sheep are due consideration as individual sentient beings. With this information, what will it take to produce a real, meaningful shift in our attitudes and actions towards other animals, including a species as disadvantaged as sheep? What else do we need to know?

Author Biography

Liv Baker is a conservation behaviorist and an expert in wild animal welfare. Liv’s work explores similar patterns of well-being seen across the animal kingdom. Her research includes elephants, cetaceans, primates, arachnids, rodents, macropods, and pigs. Liv teaches at Hunter College, CUNY, and is the research director with Mahouts Elephant Foundation, UK. Website