Colin A. Chapman and Michael A. Huffman, Why do we want to think humans are different?


In their target article, Chapman & Huffman challenge the quotation of Sir William Osler that the desire to take medication distinguishes humans from non-human animals. They provide examples of self-medication in non-human animals. Based on these examples, it can be inferred that non-human animals practice at least some form of medicine for symptom control. I would like to extend this view by showing that non-human animals not only provide self-medication, but also rescue others facing emergencies.

Author Biography

Rainer Spiegel, M.D. (University of Munich), Ph.D. in Psychology (University of Cambridge), is a specialist in internal medicine with an interest in emergency medicine. He witnessed cases where behavior of non-human animals elicited emergency calls, which ultimately saved lives. Website