Lynne U. Sneddon, Javier Lopez-Luna, David C.C. Wolfenden, Matthew C. Leach, Ana M. Valentim, Peter J. Steenbergen, Nabila Bardine, Amanda D. Currie, Donald M. Broom, and Culum Brown, Fish sentience denial: Muddying the waters


The basis of pain could be the causal nexus between one’s phylogenetic/ontogenetic history and one’s behavior. It might turn out that the neural implementation is immaterial to the instantiation of pain. Widely different neural structures may token the same pain-type, and nearly identical neural structures may token different types.

Author Biography

Riccardo Manzotti is professor of psychology at IULM University (Milan). He is the author of more than fifty papers on the basis of consciousness. His main area of research is the physical basis of consciousness — what is consciousness in the physical world? He endorses a radical externalist framework for consciousness that goes beyond embodied cognition and enactivism. Website