In the target article, I called for a discussion on the nature and extent of dogs’ emotions. The commentators generally agreed on the existence of dog emotions, but the diversity and quality of dog emotions, as well as the influence of human social cognition on perceiving dog emotions, raised more debate. To respond to the stimulating commentaries, I touch briefly on the philosophy of (canine) mind and discuss further the benefits of comparing cognition across species, secondary emotions, and the shaping of canine emotions by evolution, breeding and experience. I conclude with suggestions for future research guidelines on studies of canine emotion inspired by the discussion.

Author Biography

Miiamaaria V. Kujala (Saarela) is a researcher in comparative cognition at the University of Helsinki, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Helsinki, Finland; and Aalto University School of Science, Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Espoo, Finland. A social cognitive neuroscientist, her current research interests are social cognition and emotional experience in dogs, non-invasive brain research across species, dog welfare technology, and human perception and interpretation of animals. Website