Author Website



Woodruff makes two arguments to support his claim that ray-finned fish are conscious: (1) Fish neuroanatomy has similarities with the structures in the human brain that support consciousness. (2) The complexity and flexibility of fish behaviour suggest that they are conscious. This commentary will argue that neither the neuroanatomical nor the behavioural argument can provide conclusive evidence for consciousness in fish. We should suspend judgement until we have discovered mathematical theories of consciousness that can reliably map between states of consciousness and states of the physical world.

Author Biography

David Gamez is a cross-disciplinary researcher with expertise in philosophy, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. He is currently a Lecturer in Computer Science at Middlesex University, UK. A complete list of Gamez’s talks and publications is available on his. Website