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Open Commentary


We disagree with Woodruff that we have good neurobiological reasons to think fishes are sentient, because mechanisms for consciousness are controversial even in humans. To the extent that there are consensuses in that literature, they do not support Woodruff's claims.

Author Biography

Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, postdoctoral scholar at UCLA, is developing a new unconscious Neural-Reinforcement method to treat anxiety disorders in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Piercesare Grimaldi, Staff Research Associate at UCLA, is studying the neural bases of perceptual decision making and the metacognitive awareness associated with decisions.

Hakwan Lau, Associate Professor of psychology at UCLA and University of Hong Kong, is studying why some perceptual and cognitive processes in the brain are conscious while others are not.