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In responding to insightful commentaries from 7 scholars, for which I am grateful, I offer new thoughts on whether animals can conceptualize and express signs of grief. I also discuss why I included both weak and strong examples of animal mourning, and how this work may help us think about enhanced welfare for animals, including freedom from emotional suffering.

Author Biography

Barbara J. King bjking@wm.edu, Chancellor Professor of Anthropology at the College of William and Mary, writes and speaks about animal thinking, feeling, and welfare. Her article, "When Animals Mourn," in Scientific American was included in the 2014 anthology The Best American Science and Nature Writing. King writes weekly for NPR's 13.7 Cosmos and Culture blog. Her next book, Animals We Eat, is forthcoming. http://www.barbarajking.com