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The study deals with attitudes and views of 456 Israeli students in grades 7, 9, and 11 regarding the use of living animals in research and biology instruction. It was found that most students are interested in studying Jive animals through direct observation and experiment and feel that this kind of learning is superior to learning from secondary sources. At the same time, however, most students exhibit concern for and affection toward living organisms in general and higher animals, especially pets and "beneficial" animals, in particular. The need to consider both sides of the issue is highlighted, and practical implications and recommendations to biology teachers are suggested.