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In this study, three indirect methods [counts of animal droppings, footprints, and tracks) were used as indices to estimate the abundance and distribution of large mammals in the Upper Ogun Game Reserve, which is located in a typical Southern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. Thirteen animal species were recorded; kob, bushbuck, hartebeest, roan antelope and duicker were the most abundant. The distribution of large mammals appears to be controlled by several factors: accessibility to the River Ogun [the main source of water in the reserve), availability of food and cover, and the extent of illegal hunting.

An analysis of questionnaires distributed to various people living in villages around the reserve revealed that these people depend heavily on bushmeat for their animal protein requirements. They also use other wildlife products to meet their economic, social, and cultural needs. It is recommended that adequate protection should be accorded to the game reserve for at least 5 years. After that time, the area could be opened up to tourism, and controlled hunting could be permitted in the buffer zone around the reserve.