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Book Chapter

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In the experimental setting human contact is both more frequent and more intimate than in observational research, and the issue therefore assumes even greater importance. The present paper discusses two experimental studies of wolf information processing, one of which was conducted with unsocialized animals and one of which was conducted with socialized animals, and examines the both the management and methodological consequences of these approaches.


This study was funded by grants from the Faculty Research and Development Fund of the University of Michigan-Flint and from the Office of the Vice-President for Research, University of Michigan.

All of the authors participated equally in the socialization program described in the present paper and are listed alphabetically.