Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



The terms "wild" and "captive" have stimulated considerable debate among academicians, animal protectionists and conservationists. Some argue that animals have a right to freedom and that there is a "moral predis-position" against holding them in zoos (Jamieson, 1985; 1995; Varner and Monroe, 1991). Others argue that modern zoos and their living collections are becoming increasing important to wildlife conservation and science, and that the collective benefits so derived may override this predisposition (Hutchins and Wemmer, 1991; Conway, 1995; Hutchins et al, 1995; Norton, 1995). The purpose of this paper is to explore the concepts of "wild" and "captive" and their meaning to large ungulates and carnivores today and into the twenty-first century.


Includes transcript of discussion that followed presentation at a workshop held at the White Oak Conservation Center in Yulee, Florida, on April 21-24, 1994.