The first international conference on wildlife fertility control was held in Philadelphia in 1987. Subsequently, approximately one such event has been organized every four years (the 9th conference being held 35 years after the first). In 2017 and 2022, the Botstiber Institute for Wildlife Fertility Control (Institute) organized the most recent two meetings. The Institute is a new initiative of the Botstiber Foundation in Philadelphia, whose trustees decided to establish a specific program on wildlife fertility control. They founded the Institute in 2016 in partnership with the Humane Society of the United States. While the conference featured the customary talks on wild horse contraception and urban deer, it also included more diverse discussions. For example, topics included pigeon control, contraception attempts of hippopotami in Colombia (escapees from a zoo set up by drug kingpin Pablo Escobar), grey squirrels in the UK, kangaroos in Australia, and baboons in South Africa.
Rowan, Andrew N.
"Wildlife Fertility Control: An Alternative to Lethal Management of Wildlife,"
WellBeing News: Vol. 4:
5, Article 2.
Available at: https://www.wellbeingintlstudiesrepository.org/wbn/vol4/iss5/2