I do not believe I am the only one who has occasionally been satisfied to take three steps forward and two steps back. Despite the setback, "progress" of one step has been made. At present, the animal welfare task seems to me to be preserving that small bit of progress. In the animal welfare laws of various countries that have come into force in the last few years, terms like "appropriate conditions" and "species-specific activity requirements" have appeared. (These are the three steps forward.) Only the ethologist can determine what they mean in specific cases. But many ethologists who have never concerned themselves with animal welfare problems also feel called upon to voice their opinions. Because the necessary competence is lacking, the resulting judgments are often very curious. Recently, a prominent ethologist felt obliged to contribute seven theses to the animal welfare problem.
Sambraus, Hans Hinrich
"Abnormal Behavior as an Indication of Immaterial Suffering,"
International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems: Vol. 2:
5, Article 11.
Available at: https://www.wellbeingintlstudiesrepository.org/ijsap/vol2/iss5/11