Download Full Text (485 KB)

Download Table of Contents (25 KB)

Download Foreword (21 KB)

Download Chapter 1 - Introduction (29 KB)

Download Chapter 2 - The Quality and Integrity of Science Education (37 KB)

Download Chapter 3 - Sociological Issues (70 KB)

Download Chapter 4 - Animal Dissection in Education (116 KB)

Download Chapter 5 - Live-Animal Use in Education (85 KB)

Download Chapter 6 - Law and Policy Issues (61 KB)

Download Chapter 7 - Conclusion (24 KB)

Download Chapter 8 - Summary of Recommendations (26 KB)

Download Literature Cited (80 KB)

Download Index (32 KB)


Despite recent advances in technology and increasing societal concern for animals, animals continue to be exploited and killed in large numbers so that students can learn about their structure and function. Dissection may not be without its merits from an educational standpoint, if well implemented, but it appears from student surveys that it usually is not. When one considers the associated costs—animal suffering and death in the supply trade, disruption of wild animal populations, messages that tend to undermine rather than reinforce respect for life and concern for others, rising costs of animal carcasses (as compared with alternatives with longer shelf lives), exposure to potentially harmful chemicals, and greater time expenditures in preparing and presenting various animal-based exercises—the balance clearly falls on the side of abandoning dissection, at least in its current form.



Publication Date



Humane Society Press


Washington, DC


animal experimentation, dissection, zoology, animal welfare, ethics, animal testing alternatives


Animal Experimentation and Research | Animal Sciences | Humane Education | Zoology

The Use of Animals in Higher Education: Problems, Alternatives, & Recommendations