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Download Executive Summary (280 KB)

Download Chapter I - Introduction (277 KB)

Download Chapter II - History of Animal Research and Related Legislation (404 KB)

Download Chapter III - Current Status (2.4 MB)

Download Chapter IV - Major Philosophical Positions (213 KB)

Download Chapter V - Evaluating Animal Research (1.8 MB)

Download Chapter VI - Are There Alternatives? (742 KB)

Download Chapter VII - The Question of Animal Pain and Distress (2.1 MB)

Download Chapter VIII - Animals in Education (1.4 MB)

Download Chapter IX - The Testing Issue (1.7 MB)

Download Chapter X - The Form of the Public Debate (2.1 MB)

Download Chapter XI - Policy Proposals (168 KB)

Download References (1.1 MB)

Download Appendix I - Organizations and Resources (1.2 MB)

Download Appendix II - History of the Animal Protection Movement (1.1 MB)

Download Index (365 KB)


The controversy today regarding the use of animals in research appears on the surface to be a strongly polarized struggle between the scientific community and the animal protection movement. However, there is a wide range of opinions and philosophies on both sides. Mistrust between the factions has blossomed while communication has withered. Through the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, the animal movement grew in numbers and financial resources, and developed much greater public recognition and political clout. The research community paid relatively little attention to the animal movement for much of this period but, alarmed by several public relations coups in the 1980s, it has become more vociferous and has shifted from a reactive defense to a proactive, aggressive offense.

Publication Date



Animal Experimentation and Research | Bioethics and Medical Ethics | Laboratory and Basic Science Research


Rowan, A.N., Loew, F.M., & Weer, J.C. (1995). The animal research controversy: protest, process & public policy: an analysis of strategic issues. North Grafton, MA: Center for Animals & Public Policy, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

The Animal Research Controversy: Protest, Process & Public Policy