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Download Table of Contents (179 KB)

Download Foreword (Peter Singer) (56 KB)

Download Preface (83 KB)

Download Acknowledgements (19 KB)

Download Contributors (394 KB)

Download Introduction (77 KB)

Download Chapter 1 - Refinement on the Way Towards Replacement: Are We Doing What We Can? (2.0 MB)

Download Chapter 2 - How to Evaluate the Science of Non-human Animal Use in Biomedical Research and Testing: A Proposed Format for Debate (1.1 MB)

Download Chapter 3 - How Can the Final Goal of Completely Replacing Animal Procedures Successfully Be Achieved? (1.5 MB)

Download Chapter 4 - Disease Prevention with a Plant-based Lifestyle (961 KB)

Download Chapter 5 - Political Campaigning: Where Scientific and Ethical Arguments Meet Public Policy (780 KB)

Download Chapter 6 - Rethinking the 3Rs: From Whitewashing to Rights (1.2 MB)

Download Chapter 7 - Contesting Animal Experiments through Ethics and Epistemology: In Defense of a Political Critique of Animal Experimentation (558 KB)

Download Chapter 8 - The Moral Status of Animal Research Subjects in Industry: A Stakeholder Analysis (618 KB)

Download Chapter 9 - Increasing the Transparency of Animal Experimentation: An Australian Perspective (792 KB)

Download Chapter 10 - Wasted Money in United States Biomedical and Agricultural Animal Research (1.3 MB)

Download Chapter 11 - Ethics, Efficacy, and Decision-making in Animal Research (510 KB)

Download Chapter 12 - Beyond Plausibility Checks: A Case for Moral Doubt in Review Processes of Animal Experimentation (611 KB)

Download Chapter 13 - Human Wrongs in Animal Research: A Focus on Moral Injury and Reification (493 KB)

Download Chapter 14 - Critically Evaluating Animal Research (714 KB)

Download Chapter 15 - Extrapolation of Animal Research Data to Humans: An Analysis of the Evidence (1.2 MB)

Download Chapter 16 - Is Animal-based Biomedical Research Being Used in Its Original Context? (596 KB)

Download Chapter 17 - The Scientific Problems with Using Non-Human Animals to Predict Human Response to Drugs and Disease (1.3 MB)

Download Chapter 18 - Replacing Animal Tests to Improve Safety for Humans (873 KB)

Download Chapter 19 - Genetic Modification of Animals: Scientific and Ethical Issues (1.1 MB)

Download Chapter 20 - Animal Research for Alzheimer Disease: Failures of Science and Ethics (1.5 MB)

Download Chapter 21 - Behavioral Research on Captive Animals: Scientific and Ethical Concerns (1.1 MB)

Download Chapter 22 - Modernizing Biomedical Training: Replacing Live Animal Laboratories with Human Simulation (1.1 MB)

Download Chapter 23 - Humane Education: The Tool for Scientific Revolution in Brazil (571 KB)

Download Chapter 24 - Recent Developments in Alternatives to Animal Testing (993 KB)

Download Chapter 25 - The Changing Paradigm in Preclinical Toxicology: in vitro and in silico Methods in Liver Toxicity Evaluations (1.5 MB)

Download Chapter 26 - The Potential of Organ on Chip Technology for Replacing Animal Testing (1.1 MB)

Download Chapter 27 - When Is an Alternative Not an Alternative? Supporting Progress for Absolute Replacement of Animals in Science (776 KB)

Download Chapter 28 - Research and Testing Without Animals: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Heading? (650 KB)

Download Afterword: Evidence over Interests (223 KB)

Download Index (550 KB)


Animal experimentation has been one of the most controversial areas of animal use, mainly due to the intentional harms inflicted upon animals for the sake of hoped-for benefits in humans. Despite this rationale for continued animal experimentation, shortcomings of this practice have become increasingly more apparent and well-documented. However, these limitations are not yet widely known or appreciated, and there is a danger that they may simply be ignored. The 51 experts who have contributed to Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change critically review current animal use in science, present new and innovative non-animal approaches to address urgent scientific questions, and offer a roadmap towards an animal-free world of science.



Publication Date



Brill NV


Leiden, The Netherlands


Animal Experimentation and Research | Animal Studies | Laboratory and Basic Science Research | Other Animal Sciences


This is an open access title distributed under the terms of the prevailing CC-BY-NC License at the time of publication, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Cover illustration: Long-tailed macaque, Boo, was sent to an animal research laboratory in Europe together with her siblings, Betty and Baloo, where they were used in neurology experiments. Animal Defenders International rescued them in 2009 when they were due to be killed. They now live their lives free from suffering at Lakeview Monkey Sanctuary. We thank Australian contemporary realist artist, Anwen Keeling, for her kind contribution of the cover picture which she painted from a photograph taken by Animal Defenders International after Boo’s rescue.

Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change