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While there is no question that outdoors cats have an impact on wildlife, the extent and significance of this impact is the subject of considerable debate. The controversy surrounding outdoor cats can be traced back at least a century, with contemporary claims of threats to global biodiversity bringing animal welfare and conservation interests directly into opposition, largely over the means of managing conflicts. The irony in this is that cat defenders and cat detractors generally agree that it is in the best interests of cats that they should be shielded from the vagaries of outdoor life. While there are practical and implementable ways to begin addressing the management concerns surrounding outdoor cats the current polarization seems to militate strongly against cooperation. This paper reviews some of the complexity surrounding the issue of outdoor cats and suggests possible approaches to overcoming these conflicts.