Is there a conflict between cetacean conservation and marine renewable-energy developments?

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There is currently an unprecedented expansion of marine renewable-energy developments, particularly in UK waters. Marine renewable-energy plants are also being developed in many other countries across Europe and in the wider world, including in the USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Large-scale developments, in UK waters, covering thousands of square kilometres are now planned; however, data on the likely impact of this expansion on the 28 cetacean species found in UK waters are lacking, or at best limited. However, the available information, including inferences drawn from the impact of other human activities in the marine environment, indicates a significant risk of negative consequences, with the noise from pile driving highlighted as a major concern. The marine renewable-energy industry will also deploy some novel technologies, such as large submerged turbines, with unknown consequences for marine wildlife. Further research is urgently required, including distributional and behavioural studies, to establish baselines against which any changes may be measured. Precautionary actions, particularly with respect to pile driving, are advocated to minimise impacts on cetaceans.