Lori Marino and Debra Merskin, Intelligence, complexity, and individuality in sheep


Marino & Merskin review evidence that sheep are not just passive and reactive creatures. They have personalities that vary from individual to individual and endure over time. It follows that we must rethink what it means to study them scientifically.

Author Biography

David M. Peña-Guzmán, Assistant Professor, Humanities and Liberal Studies, San Francisco State University, holds an M.A. and Ph.D. in Philosophy from Emory University. His interests include animal cognition and behavior, the history and philosophy of science, continental philosophy, and social theory. Website