Lori Marino and Debra Merskin, Intelligence, complexity, and individuality in sheep


In the past few years, Marino and her colleagues have written a series of comprehensive and helpful review articles on the cognitive, emotional, and social complexity of pigs, chickens, cows, and most recently, sheep. These articles are similarly structured, even formulaic, which has benefits but also limitations. Here, I point out the limitations in order to suggest new directions and contributions for the authors in the future.

Author Biography

Jon M. Mallatt is Clinical Associate Professor in the WWAMI Medical Education Program of the University of Washington at the University of Idaho. His research is on the evolutionary origin of consciousness. Website