Lori Marino and Debra Merskin, Intelligence, complexity, and individuality in sheep


Sheep may be more complex and intelligent than we traditionally believed, but knowing this is unlikely to change human attitudes to sheep significantly; nor is it strongly relevant to their moral status. However, knowing more about what sheep are like could help to improve sheep welfare.

Author Biography

Clare Palmer is Professor of Philosophy at Texas A&M University. Her research interests are in animal ethics, environmental ethics, and the ethics of emerging technologies. Website

Peter Sandøe, originally trained as a philosopher at the University of Copenhagen and at Oxford University, is currently professor of bioethics at the University of Copenhagen. Website