Jonathan Birch suggests that we should take one well-conducted study that produces results consistent with the idea of pain as being sufficient to invoke the animal sentience precautionary principle. Here, I consider how to balance negative and positive results from such studies using examples from my own work. I also consider which criteria of pain might provide strong inference about pain and which may prove to be weaker.

Author Biography

Robert W. Elwood, Emeritus and Honorary Professor of Animal Behaviour, Queen’s University, Belfast, works on information-gathering, motivation, aggression and pain. scholar.google.co.uk/citations?user=JoEJgSUAAAAJ&hl=en