In the target article, I examined the relationship between vigilance and fear in prey animals. The joint occurrence of vigilance and other physiological responses to fear, such as increased heart rate and stress hormone release, would bolster the idea that vigilance can be a useful marker of fear. Nevertheless, a common theme in much of the empirical research is an uncoupling of vigilance and physiological correlates of fear. The commentators suggest several ways to refine the concepts of vigilance, fear, and risk. I discuss these refinements, which in the end will prove useful to assess further the relationship between vigilance and fear.

Author Biography

Guy Beauchamp, Ph.D. in Zoology, University of Cambridge, does independent research in Canada on the evolution of sociality and social foraging strategies, using theoretical modelling, the comparative method, and studies in the field or in the laboratory. Website