Author Website


Commentary Type

Invited Commentary


Brian Key, Why fish do not feel pain


Key (2016) claims that fish do not feel pain because they lack the neural structures that have a contingent causal role in generating and feeling pain in mammals. I counterargue that no conclusive evidence supports the sufficiency of any mammalian neural structure to produce pain. We cannot move from contingent necessity in mammals to necessity in every organism.

Author Biography

Riccardo Manzotti riccardo.manzotti@gmail.com is professor of psychology at IULM University (Milan). He is the author of more than fifty papers on the basis of consciousness. His main area of research is the physical basis of consciousness — what is consciousness in the physical world? He endorses a radical externalist framework for consciousness that goes beyond embodied cognition and enactivism. www.consciousness.it