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Abstract: Evolution, brain science, and the logic of behavior in free-living animals all converge to show that to varying degrees many animals have conscious experience, thoughts, and emotions.

Author Biography

Carl Safina csafina@safinacenter.org is the inaugural endowed professor for nature and humanity at Stony Brook University, where he co-chairs the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science and is founding president of the not-for-profit Safina Center. Beyond Words: What Animals Think and Feel is Carl’s seventh book.

Address: School of Marine & Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000


(Photo by Pat Paladines)

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Article Thread

Bookstein, Fred L. (2016) "Beyond words," yes, but also beyond numbers. Animal Sentience 2(2)

Colombo, Michael and Johnston, Melissa (2016) Introspection and anecdotes won’t prove what animals are thinking and feeling. Animal Sentience 2(3)