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Commentary Type

Invited Commentary


Thomas R. Zentall, Cognitive dissonance or contrast?


Zentall’s (2016) model of cognitive dissonance is compatible with cognitive continuity between humans and nonhumans. It may help explain cognitive dissonance-like behavior in many species, including humans. It is also consistent with Tinbergen’s (1963) ‘four whys’ in ethological explanation.

Author Biography

David R. Brodbeck is an associate professor of psychology at Algoma University in Sault Ste. Marie, ON, Canada. His work focusses on the evolution of cognition, especially spatial memory. Brodbeck also hosts the animal cognition podcast ‘Spit and Twitches’. www.davebrodbeck.com

Madeleine I. R. Brodbeck is a PhD student in psychology at the University of Western Ontario in London, ON, Canada. Her work focusses on the role of the avian hippocampus in encoding, retention and retrieval of spatial memory.